Orhan Kemal’in Gurbet Kuşları Romanında Toplumcu Gerçekçiliğin Yansımaları

Abstract: In a society, unjust distribution of materialistic and cultural power factors is the main factor that creates class distinction. After the French Revolution, in Europe two opposite class, bourgeoisie and proletariat, emerged. The difference between the lifestyles of these two classes is also seen in the sense of art. Despite the sophisticated aesthetic taste of bourgeoisie class, the social art movement based on the principle of the fusion of life and art, is born. After ward, Karl Marx’s foundation of art to economic conditionsis followed by art produced according to certain guidelines in Soviet Russia. Socialist realism is admitted as art theory of marxism with a number of principles in Russia and other socialist societies. These can be listed as partizanship, partiality, revolutionary romanticism and its natural extension poşetine type, being opposed to capitalism and disagreement with bourgeois ideology, according to the priority of “essence” and “truth”. Even though, the notion of “socialism” has been extensively used as a method after the literary phenomenon began to be interpreted from a sociological perspective, the particular use of the notion in Marxist criticism has led to appearance of the understandings that equate Marxism with socialist formation of a literature. However, every movement that chooses literature as a means in guiding to society, no matter what their ideology is, is in a “socialist” orientation. (Kaplan, 1998: 26). In Turkey, social function of literature comes up in Tanzimat Reform Era. Towards the end of the Ottoman Empire, socialist ideas are also begin to uttered by some intelligentsia. After 1919, Marxist writing activities are carried out in publications such as Kurtuluş (Liberation), Aydınlık (Enlightenment), and Kadro (Staff) magazines. After 1933, the translations of publications containing Marxist thought also increase. At the same time, Turkish artist, who reveal work with revolutionist discourse, also grow. In this generation Orhan Kemal, draws the attention from the point of enlightening the society and being the guide for it. It this aim of this study to show how he edited his novel Gurbet Kuşları (Abroad Birds) in accorance with the categories of socialist realism. Keywords: Art, ideology, socialist realism, art produced according to certain guidelines, aesthetic.


Art, ideology, socialist realism, art produced according to certain guidelines, aesthetic.